About Lutsk

The traces resided of the man reach period of new Stone Age (VI - IV thousand up to AD) in Lutsk territory. At this time man began to pass from a hunt, fishery and gathering to agriculture and cattle breeding. The further improvement the engineering of manufacturing of stone instruments has got. In Lutsk suburb - Gnidava by archaeologists were revealed rests of settlements V thousand up to AD, which belonged for tribes of linear - tape ceramics culture. The people lived in earth-houses with fires and economic holes near them.

During bronze ( thousand up to AD) in Lutsk territory there were two different ethnic settlements. The exact date of the basis of city can not be established. Polish historian of V century Yan Dogush considered, that Kyiv prince Volodimir Svyatoslavovich based Lutsk in 1000. The Ukrainian scientists assume, that the city has arisen in century. The excavation in its old part, including in Dmitriyiv cathedral area, has found out a precise cultural layer of VII - VIII century.

In the end of century Volyn together with Lutsk has come in structure of Kyiv Russ and became it's western remote area. On pages of the Russ annals Lutsk for the first time is mentioned at the description of events of 1085, and from this date the history of city is conducted.

The name of city occurs from a word of "luka", that means a bend, knee, which makes Styr River in that place, where there was a city. The most ancient name of city Luchesk with current of time changed and gradually has got of the modern form - Lutsk.

The armies from Lutsk took part in campaigns on nomads from ղ century. Lutsk was one of the greatest cities of Halytsko-Volyn Russ. In its crafts, trade developed. Behind economic and political importance it was a second city of                   Enter tower of Lutsk castle                             Volyn after Volodimir.

About knowledge and skills old Russ builders testifies Lutsk the castle, which was kept by our days. Waters of the Styr and Glushets rivers from different directions surrounded the Lutsk prince's castle, almost unapproachable. The building of the castle began in the end of ղ century by prince Mstyslav Danylovich on a place, where there was a wooden castle earlier. For building were attracted not only foreign, and Lutsk builders. Up to 1340, when on Volyn Lithuanian prince Lubart was ratified, the building of the castle was finished.

The castle represents an unapproachable stronghold, was a sample of fortification structures of that time. The cogged walls of the castle form wrong polygon. In the top part of walls are embrasures. Common length of walls is more than 240 m.,            Lutsk castle XIII - XIV picture of 1798           thickness - is more than meter, height - 10 m. The base is laid out from a stone, wall - brick.

The castle has three high rectangular towers. By it's Massiveness and architecture the entrance tower, or Lubart tower is rise above.

In southeast corner of the castle there is Styr tower (from the name of the river). It, as well as Lubart tower, has 28 m. of height. In V century on it's first floor was a treasury, and on the second and on the third - archive of the urban certificates. From northern part on the castle's walls is located third tower - Vladycha.

On territory of the castle there were prince palace, apartment houses of boyars, church, bishop house etc. Except of Top, existed Lower, or Roundabout castle, but by our days it was not saved up. Here and there there were only rests of its walls. Roundabout castle surrounded the main city. The Roundabout castle had seven towers. All of them, as well as walls were disassembled in first half of ղ century.

Lutsk has gone through also Mongol-Tatar invasion of Batuy khan 1240 and attack of the Lithuanians 1256 and Tatar siege 1257, at last two World Wars, which fronts passed through Lutsk. Here was a greatest tank fight of the Second World War.                                                                                                                                                                                   Vladycha tower

Owing to Lublin union in 1569 Lutsk has come in structure of Poland. The strengthening of social and national-religious oppression has caused revival of antifeudal struggle of national weights. Under Krishtof Kosynskiy leadership brook out first large peasant-Cossack revolt in 1593 on Ukraine. The revolt has captured on Podillya and Volyn.

In Lutsk there was a printing house since 1626 various books mainly of religious character here were issued. The activity of a printing house assisted activization of political life. In V - XVIII century in city a number of cult structures were constructed which are outstanding commemoratives of architecture.

Jesuit Roman-Catholic church, constructed in style of early baroque, with large cupola at the centre, on the right and at the left - smaller cupolas. The outstanding Ukrainian, Polish and Italian architects took part in its construction and reorganization. For a sample the best Italian structures were taken.

      Pokrovska church of XV century      

In 1432 Magdeburg Law was gifted to Lutsk, and its document obliged Lutskovites to protect the fortification and to arrange three fairs a year. The salt from the Black Sea firth and Galych Prycarpatia that later was transferred to the Lithuanian and the East Russian lands had been stored there. The population got richer and its accommodation became very attractive to invaders. In 1453 Tatars Zavolzki sacked the city, in 1459 Tatars Crimean sacked the city, and in 1500 Tatar Horde reduced the city to ashes. In 1540 the fair annihilated all local books. That is why the history of Lutsk is based on analysis of architecture constructions that were retained to the present-day. In 1985 the Government of Ukraine established a decree about proclamation of Old Town memorial complex as historical-cultural reserve of republic significance. After Lyublin Unia in 1569 Lutsk got under Polish rule.

Owning to Brusylovsky or Lutsky breach - when in 1916 forces of the Southwest front crushed German-Austrian troops - Lutsk came into the history of World War the First. Events of the Revolution of the 1917 in Lutsk were characterized by rapid changes of authority: in March power came to Council of the civil organizations, in September municipal duma was established, in November power came to military revolution committee, and after hetman establishment in February of 1918 Lutsk was occupied by German troops. In December of 1918 Directoriya proclaimed its authority, in January 22, 1919 Akt Zluky UNR and ZUNR (Act Of Ukrainian People Republic And West Ukrainian People Republic Reunion) was officially proclaimed, in May of 1919 Polish units marched into the city. Next year poles were forced out from the city by troops of the 1st Red Cavalry, Revolution                                 Lutsk castle from air                               Committee was organized. But in September 17, 1920 Lutsk was occupied by Polish troops again. According to Riga Peace Treaty they located in Volyn till 1939.

According to Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact in September of 1939 the Red Army units marched into Lutsk. Newborn after the victory in World War the Second, Soviet power was established. During the war the city was rather destroyed, hence in post-war period its infrastructure was completely renovated.

The 70s of the 20th century show essential increase of industry and population. During ten years the population of 50 thousand increased to 200 thousand.

At the turn of Ukrainian history in 1989-91 Lutsk was the first that raised the national flag of Ukraine at the city council. That was new counting out and direction of life development. The actual                                           Styr tower                                         questions of the city development were accomplishment, harmonizing of streets' exterior, houses' fronts, squares and parks, public and trade-consumer institutions. The first steps of new generation of architects, builders, business-circles were made in Voli Avenue accomplishment, the main square accomplishment, and the monument to Taras Shevchenko establishment. Then Bogdan Khmielnytsky Street was reconstructed and the monument to city's patron Saint Mykolay was opened. Practically anew Danylo Galytsky Street in Old Town was constructed. There was a memorial sign to 2000 anniversary of Christmas opened. Reconstructed Grushevsky Square with the monument to the first President Myhaylo Grushevsky on it adorned the city. Besides, during the recent years there several trolleybus lines, cultural and sport objects appeared in the city. Today's Lutsk can hardly be imagined without its numerous squares and rest zones, where patterns of modern park sculpture are placed. These sculptures were created during International Stone Plastic Arts convention.

                                    Lutsk Roman-Catholic church                                                                                           Lutsk center in evening

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